Here is the second part of the Finnish language guide, with basic firearms words. Comments or questions are welcome. If any Finns catch me in a mistake, please let me know. I don't claim to be the final authority, just a foreigner who speaks a little Finnish. Basic Firearms Terms OK, let's get down to business. In this part, I'll lay out a basic firearms vocabulary. This will be mostly in a narrative format rather than a straight vocabulary list, because I can convey more information that way and I also think it will be easier to assimilate and remember. Note that many Finnish firearm terms are of Germanic origin; most came into Finnish by way of Swedish. I have given the foreign origin of Finnish words where I know it. The basic Finnish word for a weapon or firearm is ase (pl. aseet). Small arms are käsiaseet (lit. hand weapons); military small arms are sotilaskäsiaseet. For those interested in Finnish military weapons, this leads us to the standard reference on that subject, Sotilaskäsiaseet Suomessa 1918-1988, by Markku Palokangas (3 volumes). It's in Finnish, but photo captions are translated into English and there are English-language chapter summaries. It is richly illustrated with original military photos. Another Finnish word for gun is pyssy, but I have seldom heard it used. Finnish has three words for a rifle. The most general is kivääri, from the German gewehr or the Swedish gevär. The word kivääri is most commonly used for a military rifle. A hunting rifle is usually called a luodikko, after luoti, meaning bullet. Similarly, a shotgun is a haulikko, after hauli, meaning shot. The third word for rifle is rihla, which also means the rifling in a barrel. The term is seldom used for a firearm, except in the word haulikkorihla, which is a combination shotgun-rifle. For a double barrel, an over/under is päällekkäinen (haulikko or luodikko) and the adjective for side-by-side is rinnakkainen. I have also seen kaksoisluodikko for a double rifle and kaksoishaulikko for a double shotgun, but a native speaker has informed me that these terms are not in common use. These derive from kaksi, the number two. A pistol is pistooli; a revolver is revolveri. A small-caliber rimfire rifle (like a .22) is a pienoiskivääri, after pieni, meaning small. You can also have a pienoispistooli or a pienoisrevolveri. The action of a firearm is lukko (lock). You will recall that in the old days, we used the term lock, as in flintlock, etc. A bolt action is pultilukko; lever action is vipulukko. Semiautomatic is puoliautomatti (n.) or puoliautomattinen (adj.). Puoli means half. A machine gun is konekivääri; a submachine gun is konepistooli; an assault rifle is rynäkkökivääri. The stock is usually called tukki (lit. a log). Wood is puu; plastic is muovi. The butt is perä. The military calls a folding stock taittoperä. To complete the trio of lock, stock, and barrel, the barrel is piippu. The muzzle is piipunsuu (lit. mouth of barrel). Muzzle crown is suuviiste (viiste meaning bevel or chamfer). The magazine is lipas. Sights and Scopes: A sight is a tähtäin; sights are tähtäimet. A scope is a kiikari; same word for a telescope or binoculars. A scope base is a kiikarijalka (lit. scope foot); the plural is kiikarijallat. A ring is rengas; rings are renkaat. Open, as in open sights, is avoin. A peep sight (diopter) is diopteri. Ammo: Ammunition is ampumatarvikkeet (lit. shooting material) or ammukset. A cartridge is patruuna (after the German and Swedish patrone). The bullet is luoti; powder is ruuti; a primer is nalli; the empty case is hylsy. Lead is lyjy. A jacketed bullet is vaippaluoti. A soft point is lyjykärki (lit. lead point). Weight of bullets and powder is measured in grams, not grains. Accessories (varusteet): Sling – hihna Holster – kotelo Bayonet – pistin Ammo pouch– patruunatasku Cleaning equipment – puhdistusvälineet The verb ampua means to shoot. Most any Finnish word you encounter with the stem ampu- or ammu- relates to shooting. Ampumahiihto (lit. shooting-skiing) is the sport of biathlon, which is popular in Finland. An ampumarata is a shooting range. Finnish m/39 rifles are occasionally found with KR painted on the buttstock. This stands for koulurata, meaning training range (lit. school range). And to finish this installment, here's some background on the names and origins of the most familiar Finnish gun manufacturers. Sako was originally an acronym, which is why old Sako logos are in all caps. SAKO was short for Suojeluskuntain Ase-ja Konepaja (Civil Guard Arms and Machine Works). The company was founded to build weapons and military equipment for the Finnish Civil Guard. The company was sold to the Finnish Red Cross after the war with the Soviet Union, as part of Soviet postwar reparation demands. It later became an independent company; it is now owned by Beretta. Tikka means woodpecker in Finnish. It is named after the original location in the town of Tikkakoski. Koski means a rapids or small waterfall, so the town's name translates as Woodpecker Falls. Tikka originally built weapons for the Finnish army; after the war it changed over to civilian sporting arms. It was merged into Sako in the 1980's and Tikka rifles are now made at the Sako factory in Riihimäki. VKT was the State Rifle Factory (Valtion Kivääritehdas). It was a state-owned company making weapons for the army. In the postwar era VKT was merged with other state-owned enterprises to form Valmet, short for State Metal Industries (Valtion Metallitehtaat). Valmet made a variety of products, including high-quality farm tractors. Valmet's arms business was merged into Sako, and firearms are no longer made under the Valmet name. A smaller Finnish gun company, little known on this side of the Atlantic, was Tampereen Asepaja (TAP). The name means Tampere Arms Works; Tampere is a city in central Finland. TAP made some very high quality rifles, the only one of which to reach the United States in any numbers was the TAP Lakelander 375 (model number, not caliber). TAP is no longer in business. Note: Revised to correct errors pointed out by a native speaker. Kiitos (thank you) to P04.